Hatikvah (The Hope) Israel's National Anthem








Tanakh -  Torah (Law), Nevi'im (Prophets), Kethuvim (Writings)

Scholar's Gateway - Westminster Leningrad Codex (Hebrew)

Bible Hub - WLC / English Interlinear






Hebcal Jewish Calendar - make your own Jewish, or Gregorian / Jewish Calendar





Israel and surrounding nations.  Google Earth -


Jerusalem Dateline - Debunking Myths: Who Owns the Holy Land? - March 4, 2016

             (There never was a Palestinian nation, nor a Palestinian people!)

Continuous Jewish Presence in the Holy Land


Were the Arabs Indigenous to Mandatory Palestine?


Myths & Facts Online:A Guide to the Arab-Israeli Conflict


Post-Biblical Period  -   90 to 1948 AD  - 

Showing the uninterrupted Jewish population of Palestine.

90 - Council of Jamnia -  Canon of Tanakh (Jewish Bible) confirmed.

90–96   Jews and Christians heavily persecuted throughout the Roman Empire towards the end of the reign of Domitian.

115–17  Jews revolt against the Romans throughout the empire, including Jerusalem, in the Kitos War.

Late Roman Period (Aelia Capitolina)

130  Emperor Hadrian visits the ruins of Jerusalem and decides to rebuild it as a city dedicated to Jupiter called Aelia Capitolina

131  An additional legion, Legio VI Ferrata, was stationed in the city to maintain order, as the Roman governor performed the foundation ceremony of Aelia Capitolina. Hadrian abolished circumcision (brit milah), which he viewed as mutilation.[35]

132–135  Bar Kokhba's revolt – Simon Bar Kokhba leads a revolt against the Roman Empire, controlling the city for three years. He is proclaimed as the Messiah by Rabbi AkivaHadrian sends Sextus Julius Severus to the region, who brutally crushes the revolt and retakes the city.

Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.[1] It was established by the merger of Roman Syria and Roman Judaea, following the defeat of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 CE.

136: Hadrian formally reestablishes the city as Aelia Capitolina, and forbids Jewish and Christian presence in the city.

c. 136–140: A Temple to Jupiter is built on the Temple Mount and a temple to Venus is built on Calvary.


Shortly after 193, the northern regions were split off as Syria Coele in the north and Phoenice in the south, and the province Syria Palaestina was reduced to Judea.[citation needed] The earliest numismatic evidence for the name Syria Palaestina comes from the period of emperor Marcus Aurelius.[citation needed]

286 - 305  Diocletian's Rule

351–2  There was another Jewish revolt against a corrupt Roman governor.[65] The Jewish population in Sepphoris rebelled under the leadership of Patricius against the rule of Constantius Gallus. The revolt was eventually subdued by Ursicinus.


359  According to tradition, in 359 CE Hillel II created the Hebrew calendar based on the lunar year.

361 - 363 During his short reign, Emperor Julian (361–363) abolished the special taxes paid by the Jews to the Roman government and also sought to ease the burden of mandatory Jewish financial support of the Jewish patriarchate.[66] He also gave permission for the Jews to rebuild and populate Jerusalem.[67] In one of his most remarkable endeavours, he initiated the restoration of the Jewish Temple which had been demolished in 70 CE.

390 - c. 636   Palaestina Prima, a Byzantine province in the Levant from 390 to c. 636, comprising the Galilee and northern Jordan Valley

                           Palaestina Secunda, a Byzantine province in the Levant from 390 to c. 636, comprising the shoreline and hills of the Southern                             Levant (Judea and Samaria)

                           Palaestina Salutaris alias Palestina Tertia, a Byzantine province established in the 6th century, covering the Negev and                                             Transjordan



638 - 1099  Arab Caliphate Period

638 - 10th C.  Jund Filastin, one of the military districts of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate province of Bilad al-Sham (Syria)

                            Umayyad Period -  Ancient Arabic Inscription Identifies the Dome of the Rock with the Jewish Temple 


750 - 1258   Abassid Caliphate

1099 - 1291  Crusaders, Seljuks and Ayyubids


1250 - 1516  The Mamluk Period

1492    Jews banished from Spain go to Safed

1517 - 1917  Ottoman Rule

            Palestine inhabited by a mixed population


1799   Napoleon Bonaparte's Letter to the Jews


1872–1917  Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem or Palestine, an Ottoman district that encompassed Jerusalem, Gaza, Jaffa, Hebron, Bethlehem,  and Beersheba

1915 - 1916  The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence 

1916  The Sykes - Picot Agreement 

1917  Balfour Declaration

1919  King-Crane Commission On Syria and Palestine


1920   “Mandate for Palestine” The Legal Aspects of Jewish Rights

                San Remo Conference

1920 - 21  Arab Riots            

1921  Haycraft Commission of Inquiry


1922   List Of Nations in the League of Nations -  that  unanimously signed 'The Palestine Mandate

Albania -- Argentina -- Australia -- Austria -- Belgium -- Bolivia -- Brazil -- British India -- Bulgaria -- Canada -- Chile -- Colombia -- Costa Rica -- Cuba -- Czechoslovakia -- Denmark -- El Salvador -- Estonia -- Finland -- France -- Greece -- Guatemala -- Haiti -- Honduras -- Italy -- Japan -- Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes -- Latvia -- Liberia -- Lithuania -- Luxembourg -- Netherlands -- New Zealand -- Nicaragua -- Norway -- Panama -- Paraguay -- Persia -- Peru -- Poland -- Portugal -- Republic of China -- Romania -- Siam -- Spain -- Sweden -- Switzerland -- South Africa -- United Kingdom -- Uruguay -- Venezuela


1922   According to the League of Nations mandate system, who was supposed

             to be the sovereign of Palestine after the British [were] done "helping" it?

        Churchill White Paper 

1929  Arab Riots.  Jews massacred in Hebron

            The Hebron Massacre

1930  The Shaw Commission

         The Hope Simpson Report  


1936 - 39  Arab revolt in Palestine

1937  The Peel Commission

1939  The St. James Conference

1946  The Anglo-American Committee

1947  United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine  (Resolution 181)

1948 Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel  

            Arab and British Sources on the Arab Desertion of Palestine in 1948





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